For much time it was the only primary school in Praia. At the beginning of the s, other primary schools began to be built in neighbourhoods around the Plateau and in other localities on the island. Praia was also the first site in Cabo Verde with a secondary education institution with the creation of the Liceu Nacional in In , Praia again had secondary education, first with a facility on September 12 Plaza and later in its own building. With the expansion of education in Cabo Verde in the s, various buildings dedicated to education were constructed in Cabo Verde, and Praia currently has 12 secondary education schools. Economy[ edit ] Cabo Verde’s Presidential Palace.
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Etymology[ edit ] The name Funchal was used by the first settlers that landed on its shores due to the abundance of wild fennel where, as tradition goes, the primitive burg was built. From the Portuguese word “funcho” fennel and the suffix “-al”, to denote “a plantation of fennel”: Funchal, to whom the captain gave this name, because it was founded in a beautiful forested valley, full of fennel up to the sea Manuel, Duke of Beja, dating back to the 15th century See also: Owing to its geographic location, the site became an important maritime port, whereas its productive soils became a focus of new settlers.
THE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER is one of the major works of English Literature. Since its introduction in the sixteenth century, it has had an enormous influence on everything written in English.
It is said that the mainland portion of what is now Tanzania was named by a British civil servant in , from the Swahili words tanga sail and nyika bright arid plain. In , Tanganyika was joined with Zanzibar, an offshore archipelago of islands, to form the present United Republic of Tanzania. Because of a unique combination of historic and cultural factors, Tanzanians share strong feelings of national pride and cohesion.
This sense of nationalism has served to keep the country at peace for over two decades, while most of its neighbors have been involved intermittently in catastrophically destructive civil and cross-border wars. Tanzanians have been able to resolve most internal problems without resorting to violence because of a shared language, the lack of political or economic dominance by any ethnic group, and the strong leadership provided by Julius Nyerere — , the first president of Tanzania.
At the same time, however, repressive, corrupting influences emanating from the colonial, socialist, and capitalist eras have fostered among many Tanzanians an attitude of dependency and fatalistic resignation that helps keep the country one of the poorest in the world. Covering approximately , square miles , square kilometers —an area about one and one-half times the size of Texas, Tanzania lies on the east coast of Africa, just south of the equator.
Tanzania also shares three great lakes—Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi—with its neighbors. The country is comprised of a wide variety of agro-ecological zones: The ethnic groups that inhabit Tanzania have adapted to a wide range of geophysical and climatic conditions. The specific habits, customs, and life-views of each group have been influenced by tribal traditions and alliances, European invasions, population movements over the centuries, and introduced and endemic diseases.
Capital punishment was abolished for ordinary crimes in but was retained for crimes of treason and piracy. It was re-introduced in for the crime of wilful murder, although no executions have been carried out as a result. The last execution took place on the 14 of November , when a man named Aro was hanged for the murder of his two wives.
Praia (Portuguese pronunciation: lit. “beach”, in both Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole), is the capital and largest city: 32 of Cape Verde, an island nation in the Atlantic Ocean west of lies on the southern coast of Santiago island in the Sotavento Islands group. It is the island’s ferry port and is home to one of the nation’s four international airports.
Africa is home to some of the most remarkable natural wonders in the world. It is Earth’s oldest and most enduring landmass, with most of the continent having been where it is now for more than million years. From the most northerly point, Ras ben Sakka in Tunisia , to the most southerly point, Cape Agulhas in South Africa , is a distance of approximately 5, miles 8, km ; from Cape Verde , the westernmost point, to Ras Hafun in Somalia , the most easterly projection, is a distance of approximately 4, miles 7, km.
Africa’s largest country is Sudan , and its smallest country is the Seychelles , an archipelago off the east coast. The smallest nation on the continental mainland is The Gambia. According to the ancient Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt , while “Asia” was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy C. As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of Africa expanded with their knowledge.
Climate Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. Because of the lack of natural regular precipitation and irrigation as well as glaciers or mountain aquifer systems, there is no natural moderating effect on the climate except near the coasts.
The climate of Africa ranges from tropical to subarctic on its highest peaks. Its northern half is primarily desert or arid, while its central and southern areas contain both savanna plains, and very dense rainforest regions. In between, there is a convergence where vegetation patterns such as Sahel and steppe dominate.
Portal:World War I
The Allied forces attempted to break through the German lines along a mile 40 km front north and south of the River Somme in northern France. One purpose of the battle was to draw German forces away from the Battle of Verdun ; however, by its end the losses on the Somme had exceeded those at Verdun. While Verdun would bite deep in the national consciousness of France for generations, the Somme would have the same effect on generations of Britons.
The battle is best remembered for its first day, 1 July , on which the British suffered 57, casualties, including 19, dead — the bloodiest day in the history of the British Army to this day.
Africa Information and Tourism – The second-largest continent in existence, Africa comprises more than 50 different countries and many of the world’s most famous cities. In Tanzania, Kilimanjaro is a record-breaking free-standing mountain and features no less than three volcanic cones.
During 12 hours of observation, the size of the plume gradually increased, but there were no audible explosions. Clouds obscured the summit the next morning and no additional observations are available. February SEAN Imagery from the NOAA 7 polar orbiter showed a small plume over the crater on most days. Although larger than most observed in February, a plume on the 9th appeared to be at low altitude and extended less than 10 km NNE.
On 2 March, a plume was visible to km E of the volcano. Low-level winds were blowing in the opposite direction, but those at Dennis Haller noted, however, that weather stations in the area are widely separated and that low-velocity winds are often quite variable in direction. On 8 March, the plume extended less than 50 km NE, again in the wrong direction for the low-altitude winds observed elsewhere in the region.
Tanzania National Park Service officials in Arusha roughly km SE of the volcano reported that during activity on 2 February, an eruption column and incandescence could be seen km away.
African History African Origin of Modern Humans As for Africa, scientists have formerly concluded that it is the birthplace of mankind, as large numbers of human-like fossils discovered no where else were found on the continent, some dating back 3. They became aggressive hunters, lived in caves and used fire and their ability to create stone tools just to survive. The Neanderthals arose some , years ago and inhabited regions in northern Africa and across parts of southern Europe.
There is also clear evidence that they had control of fire, lived in caves, as well as open-air structures of stone and vegetation. One of the most important developments of primitive man was the creation of stone tools. By BC farming was somewhat common in the northern areas of Africa, as people were growing crops and herding livestock.
3 A time of change This is a time of change for Tanzania’s cooperatives. Cooperatives in Tanzania have a long history, dating back to the late s.
Gjennom menneskehetens oldtid , hadde Afrika som alle andre kontinenter ingen nasjonalstater og var i stedet befolket av grupper av jegere og samlere som khoisan. De viktigste varene en handlet i var slaver , gull , elfenben og krydder. Liberia , den fargede amerikanske kolonien, og det ortodokse kristne Abessinia Etiopia. Denne koloniokkupasjonen fortsatte til etter avslutningen av andre verdenskrig , da alle kolonistatene gradvis skaffet seg uavhengighet.
Delingen av landet mellom Belgia og Frankrike langs elven isolerte disse gruppene fra hverandre. Belgierne introduserte et rasesystem. Det store flertallet av afrikanske nasjoner er republikker som opererer under en eller annen form for presidentsystem i styret. Stor ustabilitet var derimot resultatet av marginaliseringen av andre etniske grupper under disse lederne. Dets tidligere rikdommer kom andre kontinenter til gode.
Multivariate techniques were used to evaluate environmental impacts on ground water recharge. Abstract A paucity of studies on the interaction between environment and ground water recharge severely restricts the ability of people to assess future water resources under changing environment. In this study, an effort to explore the relationship between the arid environment and ground water recharge was carried out using multivariate statistical techniques in a sedimentary drainage basin the Jungar in northwestern China.
African History African Origin of Modern Humans. As for Africa, scientists have formerly concluded that it is the birthplace of mankind, as large numbers of human-like fossils (discovered no where else) were found on the continent, some dating back million years.
This type of Stone Age art is traditionally divided into two main categories: While these petroglyphs and pictographs have been found on the walls of caves, or on exposed outdoor sections of rock, in practice, the earliest art of Europe was created in subterranean caves, while in say Northern Africa it is found mostly on the surface of the ground. A third, smaller category of rock art is associated with Megaliths or Petroforms, involving the arrangement of stones to create a type of monument eg.
Characteristics Petroglyphs are generally made by removing the surface of the rock, by carving, scratching, drilling, or sculpting. The markings can be dyed or painted, or enhanced through polishing. Petroglyphs have been discovered all over the populated world, notably in parts of Africa, Scandinavia, Siberia, southwestern North America, Northern and Western Australia, and the Iberian Peninsula. The most important, but mysterious, type of petroglyph is the cupule – a non-functional cup-shaped hole created by percussion in the horizontal or vertical surface of a rock.
By far the oldest art , cupules have been discovered on every continent except Antarctica, and continued to be created throughout all three eras of the Stone Age. Cupules have also been referred to as “pits”, “hollows”, “cups”, “cup marks” – even “pot-holes”. The most important sites of engraved cave art include: Deeper rock carving in the form of relief sculpture also appeared at a relatively early stage, as exemplified by the famous Venus of Laussel c.
Pictography is the creation of monochrome or polychrome images through the application of pigments, like carbon, manganese and various oxides. As pictographs are far less weather resistant than engravings, most surviving pictography is in the form of underground cave painting , or outdoor markings under overhanging rock.
Abstract African snake-eyed skinks are relatively small lizards of the genera Panaspis and Afroablepharus. Species allocation of these genera frequently changed during the 20th century based on morphology, ecology, and biogeography. Members of these genera occur primarily in savanna habitats throughout sub-Saharan Africa and include species whose highly conserved morphology poses challenges for taxonomic studies. Concatenated gene-tree and divergence-dating analyses were conducted to infer phylogenies and biogeographic patterns.
Identification. It is said that the mainland portion of what is now Tanzania was named by a British civil servant in , from the Swahili words tanga (sail) and nyika (bright arid plain). Thus what was known formerly as German East Africa became Tanganyika Territory.
Neighbouring Kenya supplies the vast majority of visitors to Tanzania, many of whom visit the country on short day trips. By the early s, tourism accounted for almost one-fifth of the gross domestic product, while the services sector on the whole accounted for almost two-fifths. Labour and taxation Some four-fifths of the Tanzanian labour force is employed in the agricultural sector.
Of that group, less than one-tenth belongs to unions. Labour laws in mainland Tanzania and in Zanzibar are particular to each area, and workers in Zanzibar are not allowed to join mainland unions. Although workers are permitted to form labour unions without authorization, many private-sector employers have adopted illegal policies that discourage the joining or formation of unions.
The value-added tax VAT , the income tax , the excise tax, and imports duties contribute to the national revenue.